From the Summer 2007 issue of The News Media & The Law, page 22.
Uniform Code of Military Justice: The code of military laws that apply to members of the armed forces. Most punishable behavior encompassed in the code can also be found in statutes enacted by state legislatures. However, some violations are uniquely military.
Article 32 hearing: A hearing akin to a civilian grand jury proceeding that is required before a general court-martial can convene. The public is entitled to access to an Article 32 hearing, which stands in contrast to its civilian counterpart, the grand jury, which is almost always closed.
There are three types of courts-martial:
Summary courts-martial:Used to adjudicate minor offenses. Maximum punishments range from 30 days in prison to 45 days of hard labor without confinement.
Special courts-martial: Used to adjudicate offenses akin to noncapital misdemeanors. Maximum punishments include one year in prison.
General courts-martial: Used for the most serious offenses. Punishment can include the death penalty. NW