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5. Are subsequent or concurrent measures (formal or informal) available?

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  • Alabama

    Inapt; Alabama has no administrative forum for consideration of Alabama Open Meetings Act challenges.

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  • Alaska

    Always keep in mind that the object of a suit over violations of open meetings or records is primarily intended to allow you access to the meeting or record, and to obtain information for use in gathering and reporting news, rather than simply to win a victory in a lawsuit or otherwise. As a result, you should keep in mind your goal of getting the information, and constantly be aware of other sources of obtaining that, formal or informal, while you or your lawyers pursue lawsuits or other similar remedies.

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  • Arizona

    (This section is blank. See the point above.)

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  • California

    Although the Bagley-Keene Act does not require making a written demand on the state body before filing an action in court, one way to resolve an alleged violation may be to initiate correspondence with the state body, urging them to correct the alleged violation. Section 11130.3 states, "Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent a state body from curing or correcting an action challenged pursuant to this section." Cal. Gov't Code § 11130.3.

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  • Colorado

    Not Applicable.

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  • Connecticut

    See discussion below. Meetings Outline at IV.C.

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  • District of Columbia

    Not specifically addressed.

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  • Georgia

    Informal measures at resolution are not barred by the pendency of a court action.

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  • Hawaii

    No provision.

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  • Indiana

    Settlement conferences or alternative dispute resolution are available options.

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  • Iowa

    Not specified.

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  • Kansas

    No provision.

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  • Kentucky

    A party may appeal the decision of the Attorney General by bringing a judicial action within 30 days of the Attorney General's opinion. Ky. Rev. Stat. 61.846(4)(a). However, a party may not simultaneously seek the Attorney General's review of a complaint while pursuing an action in Circuit Court. See 93-OMD-81 ("a person cannot seek relief from this office under Ky. Rev. Stat. 61.846 when the same and additional questions are currently pending before a circuit court").

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  • Louisiana

    Any person may file a complaint with the state Attorney General or the district attorney, each of whom must institute enforcement proceedings unless written reasons are given as to why the suit should not be filed. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 42:25.

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  • Maryland

    Generally, the Act’s enforcement provisions do not “affect or prevent the use of any other available remedies.” § 3-401(a)(4). Injunctive, declaratory relief, and any other appropriate relief are available from the courts. § 3-401(d). Moreover, a petitioner is not required to file a complaint with the OMCB before filing suit. § 3-401(e).

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  • Massachusetts

    Court remedy is available at any time within 21-day period.

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  • Nebraska

    No statutory authority. Ultimate subsequent measure is filing suit in district court.

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  • New Mexico

    A violation of the Open Meetings Act may be corrected by holding a prompt public meeting, publicly voting on ratifying the violation.  Kleinberg v. Bd. Of Educ., 1988-NMCA-014, 751 P.2d 722.

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  • North Carolina

    Beyond negotiation with the public body, the only redress for an Open Meetings Law violation is the filing of a lawsuit.

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  • North Dakota

    The court may award declaratory relief, an injunction, a writ of prohibition or mandamus, costs, disbursements, and reasonable attorney’s fees against the entity. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.2(1). For an intentional or knowing violation, the court may also award damages in an amount equal to one thousand dollars or actual damages caused by the violation, whichever is greater. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.2(1).

    Any action that is a product of a violation of N.D.C.C. §§ 44-04-19, 44-04-20, or 44-04-21 is voidable by a court in a civil action. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.2(2).

    The remedies provided are not available if a violation has been corrected before a civil action is filed and no person has been prejudiced or harmed by the delay. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.2(3). An interested person or entity may not file a civil action seeking attorney’s fees or damages, or both, until at least three working days after providing notice of the alleged violation to the chief administrative officer for the public entity. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.2(3). This provision does not apply if the attorney general has found under N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.1, on a prior occasion, that the public entity has violated the open records or meetings laws. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-21.2(3).

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  • Ohio

    The best subsequent measure available is to sue in mandamus for the creation of minutes of meetings that were unlawfully closed. State ex rel. Cincinnati Post v. City of Cincinnati, 76 Ohio St. 3d 540, 668 N.E.2d 903 (1996); State ex rel. The Fairfield Leader v. Ricketts, 56 Ohio St. 3d 97, 564 N.E.2d 486 (1990).

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  • Oklahoma

    If possible to do in advance, it is always advisable to request access to a meeting to which one has reason to believe he will be excluded. Once denial is given, then the person can proceed to district court.

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  • Oregon

    Not addressed.

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  • Rhode Island

    Aggrieved persons may concurrently or subsequently file a complaint in the Superior Court.

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  • South Dakota

    There is nothing to prohibit duplicity, but separate legal actions should not be taken.

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  • Utah

    Not applicable.

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  • Vermont

    In practice, interested persons — e.g., news reporters — try to make their concerns known to the public body as loudly and as early as possible, in the hopes that logic, or more likely political acumen, will influence the body’s decision not to go into a questionably legitimate executive session. The reality is that almost all such situations are likely to have already occurred, especially where local boards typically meet in the evening hours, before there is even an opportunity to pursue judicial relief.

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  • West Virginia

    (This section is blank. See the point above.)

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