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6. Other


  • Alabama

    a. Local board of education and public school system records:

    (1) Letters and documents of such agencies are open. 170 Op. Att’y Gen. Ala. 20, 21 (Feb. 1, 1978).

    (2) Names of teachers whom the board has voted to give notice of transfer, proposed cancellation, non-renewal of contract, or suspension or dismissal must be disclosed, but not before the affected employees receive notice of these decisions. Birmingham Educ. Ass'n v. Birmingham City Bd. of Educ., CV 94-2637 (Cir. Ct. Jefferson Cnty., Ala., Nov. 15, 1995).

    (3) Proposed organizational chart for a school may be withheld if the injury to the school board outweighs the benefit to the public. Mobile Press Register, Inc. v. Jordan, CV 95-1593 (Cir. Ct. Mobile Cnty., Ala., June 2, 1995).

    (4) Reports of annual school bus inspections conducted by the State Department of Education must be made public by the local school board as each bus inspection is completed. Mobile Press Register, Inc. v. Jordan, CV 95-1593 (Cir. Ct. Mobile Cnty., Ala., June 2, 1995).

    b. Names of applicants for state university president: Such information is closed when in the hands of a citizen advisory committee that contains no university board of trustee’s members and that gathers facts about the applicants but does not eliminate any candidates. Birmingham News Co. v. Bartlett, CV 88-504-403 MC (Cir. Ct. Jefferson Cnty., Ala., Nov. 15, 1988, and Jan. 17, 1989).

    c. State university public relations corporation records: The records of such a corporation that contributes financial benefit to the school are open. Stone v. Consol. Publ'g Co., 404 So. 2d 678 (Ala. 1981) (trial court found public relations corporation to be alter ego of university).

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  • Alaska

    No additional relevant authorities.

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  • Arkansas

    For a more thorough discussion concerning other types of personnel records, see Part II.A.2(13) of this outline.

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  • California

    Pensions:  The appellate courts have concluded that that exact pension amounts of retired pensioners, like salaries of public employees, are public.  Sacramento County Employees Retirement System v. Superior Court, 195 Cal. App. 4th 440, 472, 125 Cal. Rprt. 3d 655 (2011); Sonoma County Employees’ Retirement Ass’n v. Superior Court, 198 Cal. App. 4th 986, 1006, 130 Cal. Rptr. 3d 540 (2011); San Diego County Employees Retirement Assn. v. Superior Court, 196 Cal. App. 4th 1228, 1242, 127 Cal. Rptr. 479 (2011).

    Police Personnel Related Records: Disclosure of police officer personnel records are regulated by both California's Evidence Code and Penal Code. See Cal. Penal Code §§ 832.5, 832.7, 832.8 and Cal. Evid. Code §§ 1043-1046; see, e.g., Copley Press, Inc. v. Superior Court, 39 Cal.4th 1272, 1284, 48 Cal.Rptr.3d 183, 141 P.3d 288 (2006) (records of a county civil service commission relating to a peace officer’s administrative appeal of a disciplinary matter were exempt under Penal Code Section 832.7, protecting peace officer personnel records); San Diego Police Officers Ass'n v. City of San Diego Civil Service Commission, 104 Cal. App. 4th 275, 128 Cal. Rptr. 2d 248 (2002) (provisions governing peace officer personnel records precluded disclosure of peace officer personnel records at public administrative appeal of disciplinary decision if disclosure objected to by officer); City of Hemet v. Superior Court, 37 Cal. App. 4th 1411, 1431, 44 Cal. Rptr. 2d 532 (1995) (records relating to allegations of police misconduct fell within protections of peace officer personnel records); Fagan v. Superior Court, 111 Cal. App. 4th 607, 618-19, 4 Cal. Rptr. 3d 239 (2003) (officers' urinalysis test results taken in connection with an administrative investigation of officer's off-duty conduct fell within protections of peace officer personnel records).

    The Constitutional Sunshine Amendment expressly maintains these privacy protections for peace officers. Cal. Const. Art. I, § 3(b)(3). However, not all police officer information is subject to these provisions or the protections of this subdivision. In Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training v. Superior Court, 42 Cal.4th 278, 64 Cal.Rptr.3d 661, 165 P.3d 462 (2007), the California Supreme Court made clear that these statutes cannot be interpreted as reaching beyond their clear language and purpose, and cannot be used as a justification for withholding basic information about the state’s law enforcement officers:

    The public’s legitimate interest in the identity and activities of peace officers is even greater than its interest in those of the average public servant.  ‘Law enforcement officers carry upon their shoulders the cloak of authority to enforce the laws of the state.  In order to maintain trust in its police department, the public must be kept fully informed of the activities of its peace officers.’

    42 Cal. 4th at 297 (emphasis added) (quoting New York Times v. Superior Court, 52 Cal. App. 4th 97, 104-105, 60 Cal. Rptr. 2d 410 (1997)).  Thus, the court held that police officer names, employing agency, and employment dates in a database maintained by the commission was not confidential under Sections 832.7 or 832.8, and disclosure would not constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy under Section 6254(c).  Id. at 294, 299-303.  And in International Federation of Professional and Technical Engineers v. Superior Court, 42 Cal. 4th 319, 343-46, 64 Cal. Rptr. 3d 693, 165 P.3d 488 (2007), the California Supreme Court rejected the argument that individual salary information of police officers was confidential as part of their “personnel records” under Section 832.7.

    Names of police officers involved in shooting incidents while engaged in the performance of their duties also have been held not to be private information under these Penal Code provisions. See Long Beach Police Officers Assn. v. City of Long Beach (“LBPOA”), 59 Cal. 4th 59, 71, 73, 172 Cal. Rptr. 3d 56, 325 P.3d 460 (2014) (limiting exemption for peace officer personnel records to records “generated in connection with [an officer’s] appraisal or discipline, and holding that “public’s substantial interest in the conduct of its peace officers outweighs, in most cases, the officer’s personal privacy interest”); New York Times Co. v. Superior Court, 52 Cal. App. 4th 97, 104, 60 Cal. Rptr. 2d 410 (1997) ("Fear of possible opprobrium or embarrassment is insufficient to prevent disclosure [of peace officers involved in on-duty shootings].").

    Relying on LBPOA, the court in City of Eureka v. Superior Court, 1 Cal. App. 5th 755, 763-64, 205 Cal. Rptr. 3d 134 (2016), held that video of juvenile’s arrest from a police dashboard camera was not a confidential police personnel record because it was not “generated in connection” with the officer’s appraisal or discipline. Instead, the court said, it was just a “visual record of the minor’s arrest” akin to “information contained in the initial incident report” of an arrest, which is not exempt as a peace officer personnel record. Id. at 764.

    A report compiled by an independent consultant hired to review an officer-involved shooting of an unarmed teenager not for disciplinary purposes but to advance department-wide administrative reforms was held not to be exempt as a peace officer personnel record. See Pasadena Police Officers Assoc. v. Superior Court, 240 Cal. App. 4th 268, 289, 192 Cal. Rprt. 3d 486 (2015). But portions of the report culled from personnel information or officer statements in the course of the administrative investigation contained within the report were held to be exempt. Id. at 290-91 (discussing segregation requirements where exempt information is not inextricably intertwined with non-exemption information).

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  • Connecticut

    Conn. Gen. Stat. § 1-213(a)(2) states that FOIA shall be construed to require a public agency to disclose "information in its personnel files, birth records or confidential tax records to the individual who is the subject of the information."

    Conn. Gen. Stat. § 4-193 states that an "agency" shall disclose "personal data" relating to an individual to that individual and establishes a procedure if the agency refuses to disclose the information.

    Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 31-128b and 31-128c permit an employee to inspect his personnel file and his medical file maintained by his employer, and Conn. Gen. Stat. § 31-128f imposes certain limitations upon an employer in disclosing "individually identifiable information" in such files without the written authorization of the employee or in response to other specific circumstances.  In City of Hartford v. FOIC, 201 Conn. 421, 518 A.2d 49 (1986), however, the Supreme Court held that municipal corporations (i.e., public agencies) are not employers within the meaning of Conn. Gen. Stat. § 31-128f.

    Conn. Gen. Stat. § 1-217 prohibits state agencies from disclosing the residential addresses of: certain individuals including federal and state judges and magistrates; local and state police officers; employees of the state department of correction; an attorney who has served as a criminal prosecutor or public defender; inspectors in the Division of Criminal Justice; and employees of the judicial branch.  The statute does not apply to motor vehicle department records. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 1-217(b).

    Public Act No. 96-133, amending § 19a-17a, exempts from FOIA any document filed with the state department of public health disclosing a medical malpractice award against or settlement with doctors, dentists and psychologists unless the department decides that further investigation or disciplinary action is warranted.

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  • Delaware

    (This section is blank. See the point above.)

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  • District of Columbia

    Not specifically addressed.

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  • Georgia

    Public school and university records are subject to the Act’s disclosure requirements. The Georgia First Amendment Foundation publishes in collaboration with the Georgia Department of Law, the Georgia Parent Teacher Association and the Georgia Press Association a citizen’s guide to accessing school records, available online at  The Act exempts from disclosure public school safety plans prepared pursuant to O.C.G.A. § 20-2-1185. § 50-18-72(a)(25.1). Records pertaining to personnel approved by a local board of education to possess or carry weapons within a school safety zone, at a school function or on a bus or other school transportation are exempt from disclosure under the Act. § 16-11-130.1(f).

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  • Idaho

    Retired employees and retired public officials’ home addresses, home telephone numbers and other financial and nonfinancial membership records are exempt from disclosure.  Idaho Code § 74-106(2).

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  • Indiana

    The job title, business address, business telephone number, job description, education and training background, previous work experience, and the dates of first and last employment of present or former officers or employees of the agency are among the categories of information subject to public access, even if an agency exercises its discretion to deny access to personnel files of public employees or officials. Ind. Code § 5-14-3-4(b)(8).

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  • Kansas

    Performance records. Personnel records are exempt from disclosure. K.S.A. 45-221(a)(4)Kan. Att’y Gen. Op. 1987-109.

    An individual county commissioner may not examine personnel records which are otherwise not open for public inspection. However, if appropriate actions are taken as a board at an open meeting, an entire board of county commissioners may inspect county personnel records. Kan. Att’y Gen. Op. 1994-121.

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  • Louisiana

    Any Social Security numbers, direct deposit information, medical and insurance related documentation contained in personnel records are exempt. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 44:11.

    Employee leave records, with possible exception of certain types of sick leave and reasons therefor, are public and not protected by privacy right. Hatfield v. Bush (II), 572 So. 2d 588 (La. App. 1st Cir. 1990), writ denied, 576 So. 2d 49 (La. 1991). There is also no expectation of privacy in an employees' identity, home address or work address. Op. Att'y Gen. 98-26; Local 100 v. Rose, 675 So. 2d 1153 (La. App. 1st Cir. 1996) (note, however, that an employee may specifically request that his or her address remain private. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 44:11). Business telephone records reflecting calls made by public employees are public records and disclosure does not violate employees' privacy rights. Op. Att'y Gen. 90-159. Per diem payment and travel expense records are public. Op. Att'y Gen. 89-471; Op. Att'y Gen. 91-295. The Attorney General has expressed the opinion that "personally identifiable" personnel records are public records "only if the information is deemed relevant to the functioning of the public body." Op. Att'y Gen. 90-364 and 79-242. It is unclear which records this elastic standard would protect, but Op. Att'y Gen. 79-242 suggests that a school teacher's employment application, transcript of grades, letters of recommendation, performance evaluation, medical records, and complaints about the teacher's conduct would be protected. See Op. Att'y Gen. 99-382 (School Board members can access an employee's personnel file to see if any disciplinary action has been taken against an employee, but cannot access school employee records relative to evaluations, observations, formal complaints, and grievances). Timesheets are a matter of public record. Op. Att'y Gen. 01-117.

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  • Maine

    All other records “received or prepared for use in connection with the transaction of public or governmental business or contains information relating to the transaction of public or governmental business” are a matter of public record unless within a specific statutory exemption. 1 M.R.S.A. § 402(3). The default rule in Maine is that all records maintained by public officers and agencies are available to the public unless specially made exempt by statute.

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  • Maryland

    There is no statutory or case law addressing additional records beyond those already discussed.

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  • Massachusetts

    A private university’s police department is not subject to the Public Records Law, even though, by statute, certain of its officers have been appointed special State police officers, and others are county deputy sheriffs. Harvard Crimson, Inc. v. President & Fellows of Harvard Coll., 445 Mass. 745, 749, 840 N.E.2d 518, 522 (2006).  Thus, it is not required to make incident reports available to the public.  Id. (Bills aimed at changing that result have stalled in the Legislature year after year since that decision).  Nevertheless, such a department is required (not by the Public Records Law but by G.L. c. 41, § 98F) to “make, keep and maintain a daily log … recording … all responses to valid complaints received, crimes reported, the names [and] addresses of persons arrested and the charges against such persons arrested,” and those logs shall be deemed public records.  Id., 445 Mass. at 754, 840 N.E.2d at 525 (2006). (Compliance, however, is spotty. See K. Brack, “Push to Open Campus Police Reports at Mass. Private Universities,” Huff Post College (Dec. 13, 2010).) The FERPA “education records” exemption does not include campus law enforcement records.  “Thus, to the extent records are created or maintained by a campus law enforcement unit for law enforcement purposes, FERPA does not apply.” Lapp, supra, § 4.4.2 (noting, however, that FERPA’s exemptions will apply if the law enforcement records are maintained by a component of the school other than the law enforcement unit, or for reasons (such as student discipline) other than law enforcement).

    Additionally, a campus police chief must provide the State Police with a monthly report about each search or arrest warrant issued by a court in response to the school’s request, id.citing G.L. c. 22C, § 69; 515 CMR 5.07(1)(c) (1996), as well as a monthly report listing all felonies that have occurred within the institution’s jurisdiction, 515 CMR § 5.07(2).  “Once in the custody of the department of State police, a department within the Executive Office of Public Safety, see G.L. c. 6A, §§ 1, 2, 18, those reports would be available for public inspection,” subject to any applicable exemptions in the Public Records Law. Harvard Crimson, 445 Mass. at 755 & n.9, 840 N.E.2d at 525 & n.9.

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  • Mississippi

    Depends on content.

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  • Nebraska

    There is no law on point.

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  • New Jersey

    N.J.S.A. 47:1A-10 provides:

    Notwithstanding the provisions of P.L.1963, c. 73 (C.47:1A-1 et seq.) or any other law to the contrary, the personnel or pension records of any individual in the possession of a public agency, including but not limited to records relating to any grievance filed by or against an individual, shall not be considered a government record and shall not be made available for public access, except that:


    an individual’s name, title, position, salary, payroll record, length of service, date of separation and the reason therefor, and the amount and type of any pension received shall be a government record;


    personnel or pension records of any individual shall be accessible when required to be disclosed by another law, when disclosure is essential to the performance of official duties of a person duly authorized by this State or the United States, or when authorized by an individual in interest; and


    data contained in information which disclose conformity with specific experiential, educational or medical qualifications required for government employment or for receipt of a public pension, but not including any detailed medical or psychological information, shall be a government record.

    See also, Kovalcik v. Somerset County Prosecutor's Office, 206 N.J. 581 (2011) - Curricula vitae and a list of classes taken by two detectives pertaining to investigation and confession may have been exempt from the Open Public Records Act, N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 47:1A-1 to -13, disclosure requirements as personnel records pursuant to N.J. Stat. Ann. § 47:1A-10 if the documents evidenced an employee’s educational background or an employee’s participation in educational pursuits generally. Remand was necessary to determine the contents of the documents and the specific educational requirements for employment as a detective.

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  • New Mexico

    Records contained in personnel files will be publicly available to the extent they do not involve “matters of opinion” or fall under another statutory exception.  See NMSA 1978 § 14-2-1.

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  • New York

    FOIL was amended in 1983 to provide that nothing therein shall require the disclosure of home addresses of retirees, beneficiaries, officers or employees of a public employees’ retirement system or of an applicant for appointment to public employment. N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 89(7) (McKinney 1988). See New York Veteran Police Ass’n v. New York City Police Dep’t Art. I Pension Fund, 61 N.Y.2d 659, 460 N.E.2d 226, 472 N.Y.S.2d 85 (1983).

    For additional cases on other personnel records, see Capital Newspapers Division of Hearst Corp. v. Burns, 67 N.Y.2d 562, 496 N.E.2d 665, 505 N.Y.S.2d 576 (1986) (granting access to record of sick time taken by particular police officer); Seeling v. Sielaff, 201 A.D.2d 298, 607 N.Y.S.2d 300 (1st Dep’t 1994) (the release of Social Security numbers constitutes an unwarranted invasion of privacy); Buffalo News v. Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority, 163 A.D.2d 830, 558 N.Y.S.2d 364 (4th Dep’t 1990) (granting access to records regarding days worked, leave taken with or without pay, and leave accrued by employees); Messina v. Lufthansa German Airlines, 83 A.D.2d 831, 441 N.Y.S.2d 557 (2d Dep’t 1981) (denying access to records of unemployment insurance benefits paid to recipient as an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy); Bahlman v. Brier, 119 Misc.2d 100, 462 N.Y.S.2d 381 (Sup. Ct. 1983) (deleting names from report on sick leave of city employees); Clegg v. Bon Temps, Ltd., 114 Misc.2d 805, 452 N.Y.S.2d 825 (Civ. Ct. 1982) (information acquired from employers and employees for unemployment insurance purposes is confidential pursuant to Labor Law § 537); Schenectady Cty. Soc. For Prevention of Cruelty To Animals, Inc v. Mills, 74 A.D.3d 1417, 904 N.Y.S.2d 512 (3d Dep’t 2010) (respondent did not meet burden of showing that names and street addresses of licensed veterinarians was an unwarranted invasion of privacy because respondent was unsure whether the addresses it maintained were home or business addresses); See Polokoff-Zakarin v. Boggess, 62 A.D.3d 1141, 879 N.Y.S.2d 244 (3d Dep’t 2009) (holding that the State Senate must disclose Senate employee’s time and attendance records as they are included in the list of records that must be disclosed under 88 (3)(b)).

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  • North Dakota

    Any record of a public employee’s medical treatment or use of an employee assistance program is confidential and must not be included in the employee’s personnel record. N.D.C.C. § 44-04-18.1.

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  • Ohio

    There is no statutory or case law addressing this issue.

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  • Rhode Island

    All pension records for current and retired members of public pension systems are public, with the exception of information regarding the medical condition of any person and the identification of the member’s designated beneficiary.  R.I. Gen. Laws §38-2-2(4)(A)(II)

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  • Tennessee

    Civil service tests are closed. T.C.A. § 8-30

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  • Texas

    Despite the prohibition on release of student records described above, a wide range of information about schools, teachers, and faculty is public. For example, the public is entitled to a list of teachers including name, home address, home and district office telephone numbers, district e-mail addresses, and the courses they are teaching, unless they timely elect to keep such information confidential, Op. Tex. Att'y Gen. No. OR 2005-02954 (2005); anonymous student evaluations of named faculty members, Tex. Att'y Gen. ORD-206 (1978); a school district's contract with the superintendent, Op. Tex. Att'y Gen. No. OR 2005-04313 (2005); and records concerning disciplinary actions and test scores, as long as students are not personally identifiable from the records. Tex. Att'y Gen. ORD-165 (1977); Op. Tex. Att'y Gen. No. OR 2002-2824 (2002). Also public are records identifying donors to public universities and the amounts of donations or outstanding pledges, Tex. Att'y Gen. ORD-590 (1991), and the names of members of a public university's animal care and use committee. Tex. Att'y Gen. ORD-557 (1990). However, the Texas Employment Commission does not have to publicly disclose the contents of the General Aptitude Test Battery it administers. Tex. Att'y Gen. ORD-543 (1990). The 1995 amendments deleted the exception for "curriculum objectives," which the Attorney General previously advised referred to "descriptions of educational goals that are so detailed that release of them would impair the evaluation and testing process." Tex. Att'y Gen. ORD-566 (1990).

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  • Utah

    a. Employment records that contain performance evaluations and personal status information are private if properly classified by the government entity. Utah Code § 63G-2-302(2)(a).

    b. Records other than performance evaluations containing personal recommendations are private if so classified by the government entity and if disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Id. § 63G-2-302(2)(d).

    c. Rules regarding the confidentiality of records pertaining to drug tests are subject to GRAMA. Id. § 67-18-5.

    d. Data within pension records concerning service credits is confidential. Id. § 49-11-618(2).

    e. All information, reports, and test results received by an employer through a drug or alcohol testing program are confidential, and may not be disclosed except in authorized disciplinary or rehabilitative proceedings, or in an authorized action by the employee for libel or slander. Id. § 34-38-13.

    f. “Employing units” are required to keep certain records prescribed by the Department of Workforce Services and to allow the Division of Employment Development to inspect those records. The information contained in the records “may not be published or open to public inspection in a manner revealing the employing unit’s or the individual’s identity.” Id. § 35A-4-312(3). The information shall be disclosed to “a party to an unemployment insurance hearing before an administrative law judge of the department or a review by the Workforce Appeals Board to the extent necessary for the proper presentation of the party’s case”; or “an employer, upon request in writing for information concerning a claim for a benefit with respect to a former employee of the employer.” Id. § 35A-4-312(4)(b).

    g. A grand jury report concerning a public officer’s or employee’s noncriminal misconduct shall be sealed by the managing judge and not be filed as a public record until at least 31 days after a copy of the order is served on the public officer or employee and an answer has been filed, or until the time for filing an answer has expired, an appeal has been taken, or the officer’s or employee’s rights of review have expired. Id. § 77-10a-17(3). The managing judge shall order the report sealed if filing the report as a public record may prejudice fair consideration of a pending criminal matter. Id. § 77-10a-17(6).

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  • Vermont

    (This section is blank.)

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  • West Virginia

    (This section is blank. See the point above.)

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