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17. Physical evidence

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  • California

    There are no cases addressing access under the CPRA to physical evidence in the possession of investigating agencies.  Some physical evidence would likely not constitute a writing within the meaning of the CPRA. See Cal. Gov’t Code § 6252(g).  Physical evidence or records pertaining to physical evidence relating to criminal investigations are likely subject to the discretionary withholding provisions of Section 6254(f) as investigatory records or investigatory files.  Once introduced in a judicial proceeding, however, physical evidence or records of physical evidence become subject to the public’s constitutional and common law rights of access to judicial proceedings generally.  Courts, as the guardians of physical evidence during ongoing proceedings, are not likely to allow members of the public to take possession of physical evidence that cannot be copied, though viewing of some physical evidence may be arranged through the court.

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  • Georgia

    The Act does not generally exempt access to physical evidence in the possession, custody or control of law enforcement, prosecution or regulatory agencies. However, the Act does specifically exempt access to such material that is evidence of a sex offense involving a minor. O.C.G.A. § 50-18-72(a)(32). Further, the Act provides that exhibits tendered to a court as evidence in a criminal or civil trial shall not be open to public inspection without approval of the judge assigned to the case. § 50-18-72(c).

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  • New Mexico

    There are no reported cases on this issue.

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  • Vermont

    The Vermont Rules for Public Access to Court Records contain an exception to the general right of public access for “[r]ecords produced or created in connection with discovery in a case in court, including a deposition, unless used by a party (i) at trial or (ii) in connection with a request for action by the court.”  Vt. Pub. Acc. Ct. Rec. Rule 6(b)(9); see also Herald Ass’n v. Judicial Conduct Bd., 149 Vt. 233, 239, 544 A.2d 596, 600 (Vt. 1988) (denying access to discovery material in the possession of, but not filed with, the Judicial Conduct Board).

    Pursuant to V.R.C.P. 5(d), most discovery requests and responses are not filed unless they will be used in a proceeding and, in practice, most discovery records are not introduced into evidence in the case.

    “Because these records are not considered by the court in resolving contested issues in the case, and are now considered to be private rather than public, they are not subject to the general rule on disclosure of court records. However, any discovery that is used in the case will be open under this section.”

    Reporter’s Notes, Vt. Pub. Acc. Ct. Rec. Rule 6.

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  • Wisconsin

    Physical evidence is available for inspection, subject to the balancing test.

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