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  • Alabama

    J. Evans Bailey
    Rushton, Stakely, Johnston, & Garrett, P. A.
    184 Commerce Street (36104)
    Post Office Box 270 (36101)
    Montgomery, Alabama

    Last updated Sept. 5, 2023

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  • Alaska

    D. John McKay
    117 E. Cook Ave.
    Anchorage, AK 99501
    (907) 274-3154

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  • Arizona

    Daniel C. Barr
    Katherine E. May
    Perkins Coie LLP
    2901 North Central Avenue, Suite 2000
    Phoenix, Arizona 85012
    (602) 351-8000

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  • Arkansas

    John E. Tull III
    Kristine G. Baker
    Amber M. Davis
    Sarah E. DeLoach
    Quattlebaum, Grooms, Tull & Burrow PLLC
    111 Center Street, Suite 1900
    Little Rock, Arkansas 72201
    (501) 379-1700

    John J. Watkins
    William H. Enfield Professor of Law
    Robert A. Leflar Law Center
    University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
    Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701
    (479) 575-2456

    Richard J. Peltz
    Associate Professor of Law
    William H. Bowen School of Law
    University of Arkansas at Little Rock
    1201 McMath Avenue
    Little Rock, Ark. 72202
    (501) 324-9962

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  • California

    Duffy Carolan
    Jassy Vick Carolan LLP

    601 Montgomery Street, Suite 850
    San Francisco, CA 94111
    (415) 539-3399

    Last updated Jan. 2023

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  • Colorado

    Steven D. Zansberg, Thomas B. Kelley, and Gregory P. Szewczyk
    Ballard Spahr LLP
    1225 17th Street
Suite 2300
    Denver, CO  80202

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  • Connecticut

    William S. Fish, Jr.
    Alexa T. Millinger
    20 Church Street – 18th Floor
    Hartford, Connecticut 06103
    (860) 725-6200

    Last updated June 2022

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  • Delaware

    Last updated August 23, 2021

    Lauren P. Russell
    1909 K Street, NW, 12th Floor
    Washington, DC 20006-1157

    Previously updated by RCFP staff based on an earlier edition by Chad M. Shandler and Laura D. Hatcher at Richards, Layton & Finger, Wilmington, Delaware.

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  • District of Columbia

    Stephen J. Fuzesi, Esq.

    A. Joshua Podoll, Esq.

    725 12th Street, N.W.
    Washington, D.C. 20005
    (202) 434-5000


    Last updated August 2023

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  • Florida

    Mark R. Caramanica,
    Daniela B. Abratt, Linda Riedemann Norbut

    Thomas & LoCicero PL
    601 South Boulevard
    Tampa, FL 33606
    Telephone (813) 984-3060; Facsimile (813) 984-3070

    With special thanks and gratitude to the original author of this chapter, Richard J. Ovelmen, who passed away in 2020.

    Special thanks to Thomas & LoCicero summer associate Elizabeth D. Ernest who assisted with this update.

    Last updated July 31, 2021

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  • Georgia

    Peter C. Canfield[1]
    Jones Day
    1221 Peachtree Street, N.E.
    Suite 400
    Atlanta, GA 30361
    Tel: (404) 581-8956

    [1] The views reflected in this compendium are personal to its author and do not necessarily represent those of Jones Day.

    Last updated Oct. 20, 2022

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  • Hawaii

    Jeffrey S. Portnoy
    John P. Duchemin
    1000 Bishop Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
    (808) 521-9200

    Last updated July 2021

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  • Idaho

    Debora Kristensen Grasham, Esq.
    601 W. Bannock Street
    Boise, Idaho 83702
    Tel: (208) 388-1200
    Fax: (208) 388-1300

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  • Illinois

    Donald M. Craven, Esq.
    Donald M. Craven, P.C.
    1005 North Seventh Street
    Springfield, Illinois 62702-3918
    (217) 544-1777 (telephone)
    (217) 544-0713 (facsimile)

    Last updated August 26, 2021

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  • Indiana

    Margaret Christensen
    Jessica O. Laurin
    10 West Market Street
    Indianapolis, Indiana 46204
    Telephone: (317) 968-5493

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  • Iowa

    Michael A. Giudicessi and Susan P. Elgin
    Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP
    801 Grand Avenue, 33rd Floor
    Des Moines, Iowa 50309-8003
    Telephone:  515-248-9000
    Facsimile:  515-248-9010

    Special thanks to Douglas L. Phillips, who co-authored an earlier version of this chapter.

    Last updated February 7, 2020

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  • Kansas

    Maxwell E. Kautsch
    810 Pennsylvania St., #207
    Lawrence, KS  66044
    (785) 840-0077

    Last updated January 19, 2023

    Special thanks to the former co-author of this chapter, Michael W. Merriam, who passed away in 2019.

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  • Kentucky

    Jeremy S. Rogers
    101 South Fifth Street
    Suite 2500
    Louisville, KY 40202
    (502) 540-2300
    Fax (502) 585-2207

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  • Louisiana

    Mary Ellen Roy
    Dan Zimmerman
    Ashley Heilprin
    Phelps Dunbar LLP
    365 Canal Street, 20th Floor
    New Orleans LA 70130
    Tel. (504) 566-1311
    Fax (504) 568-9130

    Last updated July 2023

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  • Maine

    Sigmund D. Schutz
    Harper Weissburg, summer law clerk, Boston University School of Law, class of 2022
    P.O. Box 9546
    One City Center
    Portland, Maine 04112-9546
    Tel: 207-791-3000
    Fax: 207-791-3111

    Last updated October 2021

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  • Maryland

    Robin D. Leone, Esq.
    500 East Pratt Street
    Baltimore, Maryland 21202
    (410) 332-8600

    Last updated January 2023 (partial update - ad administrative appeal process)

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  • Massachusetts

    Special thanks to Reporters Committee legal fellow Daniel Jeon for updating this chapter and to Robert A. Bertsche, of Prince Lobel Tye LLP, the original author of this chapter.

    Partially updated September 2023

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  • Michigan

    Brian D. Wassom
    Kristina Araya

    Valerie Uduji


    45000 River Ridge Dr., Ste. 300

    Clinton Twp., MI 48038

    (586) 303-4139



    Last updated July 2023

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  • Minnesota

    2018 edition:

    Leita Walker
    (; (612) 371-6222)
    Ballard Spahr LLP
    2000 IDS Center
    80 South 8th St.
    Minneapolis, MN 55402-2119

    Shannon Jankowski
    (; (612) 766-7646)
    John P. Borger
    (; (612) 766-7501 (retired))
    Faegre Baker Daniels LLP
    2200 Wells Fargo Center
    90 S. Seventh Street
    Minneapolis, MN 55402

    (Includes information from prior edition written by Paul R. Hannah)

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  • Mississippi

    Luther T. Munford
    Butler Snow
    P.O. Box 6010
    Ridgeland, MS  39158

    Haley F. Gregory
    Butler Snow LLP
    1020 Highland Colony Parkway, Suite 1400, Ridgeland, MS 39157
    P.O. Box 6010, Ridgeland, MS 39158-6010
    (601) 985-4458 (direct)

    Last updated Sept. 2021.

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  • Missouri

    Benjamin A. Lipman
    Vice-President of Legal Affairs and General Counsel
    Las Vegas Review-Journal
    (702) 383-0224

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  • Montana

    Peter Michael Meloy, Esq.
    P.O. Box 1241
    Helena, Montana 59624-1241

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  • Nebraska

    Shawn D. Renner
    Cline, Williams, Wright
    Johnson & Oldfather
    1900 U.S. Bank Building
    233 South 13th Street
    Lincoln, NE 68508
    (402) 474-6900

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  • Nevada

    Kristen Gallagher, Esq.

    Adam Hosmer-Henner, Esq.
    McDonald Carano LLP
    2300 W. Sahara Avenue

    Suite 1200

    Las Vegas, NV 89102

    (702) 873-4100

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  • New Hampshire

    William L. Chapman
    Nathaniel B. Morse
    ORR & RENO, P.A.
    One Eagle Square, P.O. Box 3550
    Concord, New Hampshire 03302-3550

    Partially updated September 2023

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  • New Jersey

    Thomas J. Cafferty, Esq.
    Nomi I. Lowy Esq.
    Lauren James-Weir, Esq.

    Charlotte Howells, Esq.
    Gibbons P.C.
    One Gateway Center
    Newark, New Jersey 07102
    (973) 596-4863

    Last updated October 2021

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  • New Mexico

    Alexandra Cervantes
    Christina C. Sheehan
    Modrall, Sperling, Roehl, Harris & Sisk, P.A.
    500 Fourth Street, Suite 1000
    Post Office Box 2168
    Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103-2168

    Patrick J. Rogers
    Patrick J. Rogers, LLC
    20 First Plaza Center NW, Suite 725
    Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102

    Last updated August 2021

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  • New York

    Michael J. Grygiel, Esq.
    Shareholder, Media and Entertainment Law Litigation Group
    54 State Street
    Albany, New York 12207
    (518) 689-1400

    The author gratefully acknowledges the comprehensive research assistance provided by Kelly L. McNamee and Jennifer M. Gomez, litigation associates with Greenberg Traurig’s Albany office.

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  • North Carolina

    C. Amanda Martin,
    Michael J. Tadych,
    Stevens Martin Vaughn & Tadych, PLLC
    The Historic Pilot Mill
    1101 Haynes Street, Suite 100
    Raleigh, North Carolina 27604
    (919) 582-2300; (866) 593-7695

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  • North Dakota

    Amy Oster, Esq.
    Crowley Fleck PLLP
    100 West Broadway, Suite 250
    Bismarck, North Dakota 58501
    (701) 223-6585

    Last updated February 2019

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  • Ohio

    Andrew Geronimo
    Stanton Foundation Fellow, First Amendment Project
    Case Western Reserve University School of Law
    11075 East Boulevard
    Cleveland, Ohio 44106

    David Marburger
    Marburger Law LLC
    14700 Detroit Ave., Suite 1
    Cleveland, OH 44107

    With research contributions from Marcus Mazurowski, Coreen Debelak, and Max Marhulik, students in the First Amendment Lab at Case Western Reserve University School of Law.

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  • Oklahoma

    RCFP Local Legal Initiative attorney Kathryn E. Gardner updated this chapter in November 2021, with special thanks and gratitude to David McCullough, the original author, who passed away in 2020.

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  • Oregon

    Duane A. Bosworth
    Derek D. Green
    1300 SW Fifth Ave., Suite 2400
    Portland, Oregon 97201-5610
    Phone: (503) 241-2300

    Last updated July 2019

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  • Pennsylvania

    Charles Kelly, Esq.
    John A. Marty, Esq.
    Wesley Mishoe, Esq.
    John R. Dixon, Esq.
    One PPG Place, 30th Floor
    Pittsburgh, PA 15222
    (412) 209-2500

    The authors thank Ashley Saul (J.D. candidate, University of Miami) and Brian Piper (J.D. candidate, University of Florida) for their important contributions and assistance in writing this chapter. The authors also give special thanks to Robert C. Clothier and Beth L. Weisser, whose efforts in writing the first edition of this guide laid the critical foundation upon which this chapter was built, as well as Terry Mutchler, for her contribution to this update.

    Last updated Oct. 4, 2019

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  • Rhode Island

    Joseph V. Cavanagh, Jr. Esq.
    Robert J. Cavanagh, Jr. Esq.
    Commerce Center
    30 Exchange Terrace
    Providence, Rhode Island 02903
    (401) 831-8900

    (Updated by RCFP staff)

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  • South Carolina

    Jay Bender
    3710 Landmark Dr., Suite 400
    Post Office Box 8057
    Columbia, SC 29202
    (803) 799-9091

    Updated by
    Taylor M. Smith IV
    Harrison, Radeker & Smith, P.A.
    P.O. Box 50143
    Columbia, SC 29250
    (803) 779-2211

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  • South Dakota

    Jon E. Arneson
    123 South Main Avenue, Suite 202
    Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104
    Telephone: (605) 335-0083

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  • Tennessee

    Douglas R. Pierce
    1100 Union Street Plaza
    315 Union Street
    Nashville, TN 37201
    (615) 259-3456

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  • Texas

    Charles L. Babcock
    Paul C. Watler
    Eric D. Wong

    Jackson Walker L.L.P.
    2323 Ross Avenue
    Suite 600
    Dallas, TX 75201
    (214) 953-6000

    1401 McKinney Street
    Suite 1900
    Houston, Texas 77010
    (713) 752-4200

    Last updated September 9, 2019

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  • Utah

    Jeffrey J. Hunt, Esq.
    Austin J. Riter, Esq.

    Michael S. Anderson, Esq.

    April M. Medley, Esq.
    185 South State Street, Suite 800
    Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
    (801) 532-7840

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  • Vermont

    Robert B. Hemley, Esq.
    Erin M. Moore, Esq.
    76 St. Paul Street
    P.O. Box 369
    Burlington, VT 05402
    (802) 658-0220
    Fax: (802) 658-1456

    Last updated Sept. 30, 2019

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  • Virginia

    Craig T. Merritt, Esquire
    Merritt Law, PLLC
    919 East Main Street
    Suite 1000
    Richmond, Virginia 23219

    David B. Lacy, Esquire
    Christian & Barton, L.L.P.
    901 East Cary Street
    Suite 1800
    Richmond, Virginia 23219

    Last updated September 2021

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  • Washington

    Eric M. Stahl,
    Michael J. Killeen,
    920 Fifth Avenue
    Suite 3300
    Seattle, Washington 98104
    (206) 622-3150

    Last updated December 2020

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  • West Virginia

    Patrick C. McGinley
    Judge Charles H. Haden II Professor of Law
    West Virginia University
    College of Law
    P.O. Box 6130
    Morgantown, WV 26507-6130
    (304) 552-2631


    Suzanne M. Weise
    Visiting Associate Professor of Law
    West Virginia University
    College of Law
    P.O. Box 6130
    Morgantown, WV 26507-6130

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  • Wisconsin

    James A. Friedman
    Godfrey & Kahn, S.C.
    One East Main Street, Suite 500
    P.O. Box 2719
    Madison, WI 53701-2719
    Phone: 608-257-3911
    Fax: 608-257-0609

    Special thanks to the previous authors of this chapter, Robert A. Christensen and David Lucey from Foley & Lardner LLP.

    Last updated Sept. 14, 2020

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  • Wyoming

    Bruce T. Moats, Esquire
    Law Office of Bruce T. Moats, P.C.
    2515 Pioneer Avenue
    Cheyenne, Wyoming 82001
    (307) 778-8844

    Michael J. Krampner, Esq., prepared the first edition of this work in 1989 with Lee Miller, Esq., who prepared the second edition in 1993. Dave Evans, Esq., prepared the third edition in 1997.

    Updated February 2023 (changes to administrative appeal, enforcement of the Act)

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